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About Copala Trique

  Diccionario triqui–español y español–triqui: Triqui de San Juan Copala
  This is an expanded version of the draft vocabulary that was posted in 2005.  It presents the results of over five decades of fieldwork in Copala Trique.  In addition to the Trique-Spanish side, which contains nearly 7000 main entries, many with illustrative sentences, it also contains a Spanish-Trique index and a number of appendixes.  One of the distinctive features of this language is the very large number of variant forms, many of which are included in this dictionary.  Because the fieldwork was carried out mainly during the 1960s and 1970s, the language described is largely that of a past generation.  I am grateful to Miguel Santillán for his input into this project via telephone conversations between the U.S. and Baja California over the past two years.  Even though this dictionary could be improved and further expanded in many ways, the time has come to make it available.  Revised March, 2016.  
  The dictionary is presented in four separate files: Front matter (PDF Document - 417 KB), Trique - Spanish vocabulary (PDF Document - 3.9 MB), Spanish - Trique vocabulary (PDF Document - 1013 KB), and Appendixes (PDF Document - 1.3 MB)  
 
  Statement of current orthography: Trique, Copala  (PDF Document - 199 KB)
  This is a detailed description of the alphabet used to write this language in the dictionary posted here, in the grammar published in 2008, and in various texts in the language, including the most recent revision of the New Testament.  
 
  The Phonology and Morphology of Tone and Laryngeals in Copala Trique  (PDF Document - 9.3 MB)
  This file contains my doctoral dissertation, which was completed in 1984.  One addition I would like to make to it is that on page 226 I mention four tonally irregular verbs, but there is also a fifth one, ni3quee2 ‘to be wrapped’, with the tone pattern ni2quee32 in the future tense.  
 
  Tres temas dominantes en la cultura triqui  (PDF Document - 83 KB)
  This paper describes three themes prominent in Copala Trique culture: cultural inferiority, pessimism and fatalism, and capricious supernatural beings.  It was published in 1995 in Juan Schobinger, editor, Humanismo siglo XX: estudios dedicados al Dr. Juan Adolfo Vázquez.  
 
  Topónimos triques: huellas de la prehistoria  (PDF Document - 90 KB)
  This paper describes a number of place names used in the Trique towns of Copala and Chicahuaxtla, and uses them as clues to the ethnohistory of the region.  It was presented in 1979 at the XVI Mesa Redonda of the Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología, and originally published in 1980 in the Memorias.  It is reprinted here with minor corrections.  
 
  Los nombres personales entre los triques de Copala  (PDF Document - 125 KB)
  This paper describes the traditional reluctance of the Copala Trique people toward revealing their official names, and their use of aliases, kinship terms, and personal and famiily nicknames instead.  The names are cited in an old alphabet; for example, the number 1 is used for a high tone, rather than for a low tone as is done now.  This paper was presented at the XLI Congress of Americanists in Mexico City in 1974, and it was originally published in 1980 in S. I. L.-Mexico Workpapers 4:9-14.  It is reprinted here with minor corrections.  
 
  El mundo animal en el folklore de los triques de Copala  (PDF Document - 274 KB)
  This article, written in Spanish, presents a wide selection of beliefs, sayings, and legends that form part of the Copala Trique culture, and that make reference to the arthropods, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals that abound in the region, which is fairly heavily wooded and spans several vegetation zones.  The article was originally published in 1980 in the journal Tlalocan (volume 8:437-90), and it is reproduced here with permission of the publisher (Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas de la UNAM).  The file posted here is a slight revision, with various comments in brackets.  
 
  Semantic and syntactic extensions of Copala Trique body-part nouns  (PDF Document - 177 KB)
  This article catalogs the many ways in which nouns referring to body parts have been extended in Copala Trique.  Some extensions are within the noun category, while others are prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, and conjunctions.  It was originally published by El Colegio de México in 1990 in Beatriz Garza Cuarón and Paulette Levy, eds., Homenaje a Jorge Suárez, and it is posted here by permission of the publisher.  
 

About Mixtec and Mixtecan languages

  Notes on Mixtec terms for supernatural beings  (PDF Document - 104 KB)
  This work compiles information on the terms used for supernatural beings in the Mixtec languages from the prehispanic period to the modern period.  
 
  Statement of current orthography: Mixtec, Magdalena Peñasco  (PDF Document - 230 KB)
  This is a detailed description of the alphabet used to write this language.  It is based on the orthography proposed by the “Academia de la Lengua Mixteca.”  
 
  Guía ortográfica: mixteco de Magdalena Peñasco  (PDF Document - 87 KB)
  This is a description, in Spanish, of the orthography used in writing Magdalena Peñasco Mixtec, designed to help native speakers and bilingual teachers.  
 
  Apuntes sobre el mixteco de Achiutla: un proyecto de rescate  (PDF Document - 433 KB)
  This work presents the scant material I obtained in 2000 from an older speaker of this dying language.  
 
  Los adverbios direccionales del mixteco de Magdalena Peñasco  (PDF Document - 185 KB)
  This paper discusses a set of adverbs that usually begin with n or nd, that immediately follow a verb, and that express mostly positions or directions.  It was presented at the Coloquio de Lenguas Indígenas “Fernández de Miranda” in Oaxaca City, in April, 2008, and has not yet been published.  
 
  A preliminary reconstruction of Mixtec pronouns  (PDF Document - 241 KB)
  This paper compares the characteristics of pronoun systems in various parts of the Mixtec region and attempts to show how the differences developed.  It also attempts to reconstruct a proto form for each pronoun.  
 
  Notes on tense, mood, and negation in Mixtec languages  (PDF Document - 125 KB)
  This paper describes the prefixes and proclitics that enter into Mixtec verb inflection and derivation.  It compares the distribution of these elements in contemporary Mixtec languages from different regions, and relates them to the Mixtec of the Colonial period.  
 
  Three comparative databases on Mixtec grammar
  In the early 2000s I became intrigued with historical Mixtec, when I realized that there was material available from the Colonial period as well as published material for many modern variants of the language.  Josserand’s historical work dealt mainly with lexical roots, and I decided to put my attention on grammatical morphemes.  In 2002 I compiled three databases, one for deictic features, one for pronouns, and the third for elements in the verb that marked tense, mood, and negation.  I have used this material to write four historical studies, all of which are posted on this site.  As the years passed, however, I realized that I would probably never have the opportunity to amplify these databases, or even to check the data one more time for accuracy.  I therefore decided to make them available in their present form, as roughly-organized field notes.  
  These three files are: Mixtec deixis database (PDF Document - 84 KB), Mixtec pronoun database (PDF Document - 255 KB), and Database showing tense, mood, and negation in Mixtec (PDF Document - 1014 KB)  
 
  Tres cuentos de las bandoleras  (PDF document - 120 KB)
  Three analyzed texts in Magdalena Peñasco Mixtec, with literal and free Spanish translations, which relate how supernatural creatures called “bandoleras” deceive people.  English and Spanish abstracts are included at the end.  Revised April, 2016.   
 
  El cuento del conejo y el campesino  (PDF document - 124 KB)
  An analyzed text in Magdalena Peñasco Mixtec, with literal and free Spanish translation, which tells how the rabbit helped a farmer and his family to escape the flood, and how God punished him by turning him into the moon.  English and Spanish abstracts are included at the end.  Revised April, 2016.   
 
  Yaa ñuu savi (Canción mixteca)  (PDF document - 23 KB)
  A translation of a traditional song about the Mixteca region into the Mixtec of Magdalena Peñasco, prepared by two native speakers.  The original text of the song in Spanish is also included.   
 
  The historical source of an irregular Mixtec tone-sandhi pattern  (PDF document - 177 KB)
  This paper was published in 2003 in Mary Ruth Wise, Thomas N. Headland and Ruth M. Brend (eds.), Language and life: essays in memory of Kenneth L. Pike.  It is reprinted here with a few minor corrections. ”    
 
  El sistema deíctico del mixteco de Magdalena Peñasco y sus antecedentes históricos  (PDF document - 205 KB)
  This study was presented to the Mesa Redonda “Homenaje a Roberto Escalante Hernández,” 22 February, 2001, and has so far remained unpublished.   
 
  La difusión de los cambios tonales en el mixteco  (PDF document - 141 KB)
  This study was presented to the Tercer Coloquio “Mauricio Swadesh” sponsored by the Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas of the UNAM, from August 29 to September 2, 2001, and has so far remained unpublished.  
 
  Introduction to Notes on Mixtec Toponyms for Towns  (PDF document - 154 KB)
Notes on Mixtec Toponyms for Towns  (PDF document - 375 KB)
  This study proposes an etymology for town names in Mexico that have a Mixtec source.  It was originally prepared at the request of William Bright (now deceased) for a book he had planned to edit about Mexican town names with indigenous sources, together with Yolanda Lastra.  It consists of two files, an introduction to the project and the database.  
 
  Los nombres y apellidos del mixteco de Magdalena Peñasco  (PDF document - 106 KB)
  This paper describes the personal names and surnames used in the town of Magdalena Peñasco.  First names are largely adapted into Mixtec from traditional saint names in Spanish.  Surnames are based on common Spanish surnames, with phonological adaptations, and they are accompanied by a gender prefix.  When the full name of a person is given, the last name with its gender prefix comes first, and then the first name.   
 
Los pronombres honoríficos del mixteco: reflejo de la historia social del pueblo mixteco  (PDF document - 201 KB)
  This paper tracing the history of the first and second person respect pronouns in Mixtec, written in Spanish, was published in August 2003 in Cuadernos del Sur, a social science journal published in Oaxaca (año 9, núm. 19, pages 51–58).  The paper claims that the original pronoun system of Mixtec did not have honorific pronouns, and that they developed in the western part of the Mixteca Alta when a stratified social system arose.  It is included here with the permission of the editors in order to give it wider circulation.  Abstracts in English and Spanish are provided in a separate abstract file.  (PDF Document - 25 KB)  
 
  Cuatro morfemas funcionales en las lenguas mixtecanas  (PDF Document - 110 KB)
  This article, written in Spanish, claims that the homophonous forms found in Mixtecan languages that serve as nominalizer, complementizer, and relative pronoun are all special uses of the same morpheme.  It further claims that the basic use of this morpheme is as a special class of pronoun that serves as the head of a noun phrase and that introduces a modifying adjective or relative clause; this pronoun can often be translated 'that which (is)'.  This morpheme has the form ña in the lowland Mixtec area, se32 in Copala Trique, and xa in the highland Mixtec area, with variants that include xe, ja, and cha.  The article was originally published by the Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, UNAM, in 1995 in Ramón Arzápalo Marín and Yolanda Lastra, compilers, Vitalidad e influencia de las lenguas indígenas en Latinoamérica: II Coloquio Mauricio Swadesh.  It is posted here by permission of the publisher.  
 
Los pronombres del mixteco de Magdalena Peñasco  (PDF document - 208 KB)
  A popular presentation of the pronoun system of Magdalena Peñasco Mixtec, written in Spanish, highlighting a number of features different from Spanish, such as: familiar vs. honorific first-person pronouns, inclusive vs. exclusive, and a number of gender distinctions in third person (child, animal, sacred, wood, and liquid).  This was originally published in 2000 as a booklet, and the original files for the body and the cover (PDF document - 58 KB) are included here with a few slight revisions in the body.  (© 2000, Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., used by permission.)  
 

About other topics

  Gramática breve del náhuatl de Michoacán
Guillermo Sischo H. and Elena Erickson de Hollenbach
(PDF document - 476 KB)
  This grammar of Michoacán Aztec (ISO code ncl) is based on over forty years of fieldwork by Bill Sischo (now deceased).  The version posted here is a slight revision of the version posted on this site in 2005.  A draft vocabulary of this language is posted on The SIL International website:   Vocabulario del náhuatl de Michoacán.  This variety of Aztec should be of considerable interest to Aztec scholars because it has been geographically isolated from others for several centuries.   It should also be of interest to students of language contact because of the heavy influence from Spanish on its structure.   
  Three files containing verb paradigms accompany the grammar: Intransitive verbs (PDF Document - 179 KB), Transitive verbs (PDF Document - 238 KB), and Irregular verbs (PDF Document - 122 KB).  
 
  Gramática del Amuzgo de Xochistlahuaca
Marjorie J. Buck
  (documento PDF - 1.8 MB)
  This grammar of an Otomanguean language spoken in the coastal area of the state of Guerrero (ISO code amu) was written by an SIL colleague who has carried out extensive fieldwork in the area starting in the 1950s.  My role in this grammar was to serve as a linguistic advisor and copy editor.  This grammar awaits a review of the Spanish, which neither the author nor I is able to provide because our native language is English.  It seemed advisable, however, to make it available in its present preliminary form while it passes through the editorial process.  We ask the reader to excuse the errors and awkward phrasings that he will surely find.